- The foreign exchange (FX) market is usually first to react to economic or political events
- Currency value volatility can easily erase business profit margins
- FX solutions guarantee a specific exchange rate to protect the bottom line
- Specialists can help SMEs to hedge against FX risk so they can concentrate on their business instead of currency movements
SMEs must factor currency risks into their business strategy
A currency is often the barometer of a country's economy. Whenever there is a major event - be it political, economic, a force of nature, or just a tweet - the currency is the first to react. Yet all too often, it is the last thing that business managers focus on.
Brexit and the US-China trade war have proven this point, with the British pound, US dollar and Chinese yuan all victims of sudden moves in both directions. Such volatility makes it almost impossible to predict the value of a currency tomorrow, let alone over a 30- to 90-day period when most business transactions will be settled.
This causes significant risks to companies involved in international trade. Risks are greater for small- and medium-sized businesses (SME) where products and clients are less diversified than for multinationals. Therefore, SMEs need to actively manage currency risk to protect their bottom line.
A risk management framework is key
1. Determine your exposure:
How much of your business is overseas - whether that is buying raw materials or selling finished goods? Previous trading and the average time frame to clear bills should offer a basis to analyse one's currency exposure.
2. Choose the correct strategy:
How complex should your hedging structure be, bearing in mind that doing nothing is itself a decision - and one that carries risk? Should you hedge your entire exposure, or just some?
3. Regular review:
Is the strategy adequate for the current economic conditions and outlook? Hedging strategies come with various degrees of flexibility and complexity, so they must be reviewed regularly as market conditions change constantly.
A higher percentage of FX transactions, and/or a longer clearance on payments, means a greater need for risk management.
Use spot and forward contracts: Protect your buy and sell prices
Firstly, here are some simple definitions of the terminology used to explain FX contracts.
|Spot contract||An agreement to buy or sell a currency at an agreed-upon rate to be utilised immediately or within 2 business days.|
|Forward contract||An agreement to buy or sell a currency at an agreed-upon rate for a future date specified in the contract.|
|Limit order||The commitment to buy or sell currency at an agreed-upon rate should it be reached.|
Let's say you need to buy or sell in a foreign currency within a short turnaround time. One solution is to buy a "spot" FX contract with your bank, which can be executed immediately or within 2 business days. However, it requires adequate funds in your account at the time of execution.
More precision is achieved by matching the FX transaction exactly with the payment date, using a "forward contract." The FX rate is immediately guaranteed, even though payment is delayed until a specified future date. This acts to lock in profit margins and improves cash flow.
When your company wins an order, you have already prepared a calculation to build in that profit. If that involves imports or exports, a currency value must be applied to those goods, even though payment is unlikely for at least a month. Using FX solutions allows you to lock in currency values with accuracy while also matching delivery and payment dates.
Your banking partner can help
Analysing and anticipating market movements require FX expertise, which many business managers do not have. This is where financial experts can help - UOB FX specialists, armed with UOB's in-depth research, can provide advice on strategy and execution, incorporating views on the direction and timing of markets. In this way, SMEs can use a more disciplined and tactical approach to hedging.
For importers and exporters, forward contracts provide a hedge against the risk of fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which may occur between the time the contract for sale is made and the time when payment is actually received.
More complex strategies are available, such as limit orders, a commitment to transact at a chosen level should it be reached, are an available option as well. However, this should not be considered until basic currency management has been mastered with spot and forward contracts.
All successful SMEs follow a structured business strategy that includes forward planning, with the intention to protect one's costs or profits from currency fluctuations as well. At UOB, we offer dedicated support from FX specialists to advise SMEs on managing foreign-exchange risk and helping them to secure preferential rates. Contact us today to learn more.
Disclaimer: This publication is issued to Accredited Investors only and is produced by a sales, structuring or trading desk of United Overseas Bank Limited ("UOB"), strictly for informational purposes only. It shall not be transmitted, disclosed, copied or relied upon by any person for whatever purpose, and is also not intended for distribution to, or use by, any person in any country where such distribution or use would be contrary to its laws or regulations. This publication is not an offer, recommendation, solicitation or advice to buy or sell any investment product/securities/instruments. Nothing in this publication constitutes accounting, legal, regulatory, tax, financial or other advice. Please consult your own professional advisors about the suitability of any investment product/securities/ instruments for your investment objectives, financial situation and particular needs.
The information contained in this publication is based on certain assumptions and analysis of publicly available information and reflects prevailing conditions as of the date of the publication. Any opinions, projections and other forward-looking statements regarding future events or performance of, including but not limited to, countries, markets or companies are not necessarily indicative of, and may differ from actual events or results. The views expressed within this publication are solely those of the author's and are independent of the actual trading positions of United Overseas Bank Limited, its subsidiaries, affiliates, directors, officers and employees ("UOB Group"). Views expressed reflect the author's judgment as at the date of this publication and are subject to change.
UOB Group may have positions or other interests in, and may effect transactions in the securities/instruments mentioned in the publication. UOB Group may have also issued other reports, publications or documents expressing views which are different from those stated in this publication. Although every reasonable care has been taken to ensure the accuracy, completeness and objectivity of the information contained in this publication, UOB Group expressly disclaims liability for any error or omission and makes no representation or warranty, whether express or implied, as to its accuracy, timeliness, completeness and objectivity and accept no responsibility or liability relating to any losses or damages howsoever suffered by any person arising from any reliance on the views expressed or information in this publication.